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Aquaria: Tutorials: 


Many people believe maintaining an aquarium involves a monthly ritual of entirely emptying and cleaning the tank and decorations. But nothing could be further from correct. What most don't realize is that, by doing so, they would be regularly upsetting a desirable biological balance that the fish rely on for their health and well-being...

There are three types of water filtration in an aquarium system: 1) mechanical, 2) chemical, and 3) biological; and they may be used singly, or, more typically, in combination.

Mechanical filtration consists of physically removing solid waste and debris from the system through the use of fiber floss, foam or other similar media to physically trap particles for removal. Even the aquarium gravel itself can be used as a mechanical filter-- more on that later.

Chemical filtration consists of using carbon, resins or other like media to bind waste products at a molecular level. While many believe that charcoal or activated carbon are primarily responsible for filtering aquarium water, they, and other chemical media, are mainly ancillary in nature, providing primarily the function of clarifying cloudy or discolored water-- things that the other two types of filtration cannot do in all cases.

Under biological filtration, naturally occuring bacteria colonize the surfaces and pores of all the other types of media. The gravel on the aquarium bottom can even be utilized as a host for these important bacteria-- again, more on that later. Of the three types, biological filtration is by far the most attractive, because it is both efficient and cost effective.
...continue reading "Basics of Aquarium Filtration"

Aquaria: Diseases: 

Help! My fish have the Ick!!! Or, as a customer once told me, "the Yuck". After a momentary chuckle to myself, I went on to explain that the common term for this common aquarium fish disease comes not from some nasty appearance the infected fish take on, but from an abbreviation of the disease's scientific name.

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is the parasite responsible for the freshwater version of the disease. Cryptocaryon irritans is the saltwater version most often seen. But the term "ich", as it is more appropriately spelled, has come to be commonly used whether talking about fresh or salt.

In any case, the story of "ich" goes like this: Healthy fish carry the parasite in a dormant state without suffering any apparent ill effects. Fish that become stressed or weakened lose their "immunity" and begin to show signs of an evolving infestation. Initially, the fish's fins appear to have a few, small white nodules about the size of a grain of salt on them. Irritated, the fish will "scratch" up against rocks and decorations. Over the course of a few days, the spots multiply and spread to the body as well. The disease will also spread to other fish in the tank, even to those who are not stressed or weak. Left untreated, most if not all fish in the tank will die, if not directly from the parasite, but also from the secondary bacterial infection that typically sets in at the parasites' attachment points.

It's important to know, before treating, just how the medication works against the disease. While still on the fish, the parasite is not affected by common ich medicines. After a number of days, the parasitic cyst falls off the fish, and, while unattached, goes into a reproductive phase. Multiple offspring from the single cyst are then released in a free-swimming form which reattach to the fish-- both those previously affected and those not-- and the cycle starts all over again. It is in this free-swimming stage that the parasite is most vulnerable to the medication.

A common strategy for ich treatment includes increasing the water temperature of the tank by several degrees. There is a drawback to this in that additional stress is introduced by the change in temp at a time when fish are already stressed, and in that warmer water holds dissolved oxygen less easily. The benefits outweigh the drawbacks, however, as it is typically a sudden drop in temperature that caused the stress in the first place, and additional aeration can be employed while the temperature increase is in effect.

The reason for upping the temp is to actually cause the parasite to reproduce more quickly. The rationale is that the medications typically have a short period of activity-- re-treatments are often necessary before a cure is complete. If the parasite is more frequently in the stage of its lifecycle where it can be acted upon by the medicine while the medicine is active, the more parasites that will be killed.

Interestingly, in the saltwater version of the disease, there's a technique used to improve treatment success, and one that can often nip early active infestations in the bud. It's called the "freshwater dip". This trick takes advantage of the fact that the parasite, even when attached to the fish, is actually quite a fragile organism. The freshwater dip involves making up a container of de-chlorinated and tank temperature-matched freshwater. The fish is (hopefully) gently netted from the tank and placed in the freshwater for a short period-- usually only a minute-- before being returned to the tank. That sudden change from salt to fresh water, though, causes an "osmotic shock" which, while only minimally stressful to the fish, causes the parasitic cyst to literally explode.

It's important to monitor your aquarium daily for signs of disease, and for any changes in the environment that may cause the stress that leads to disease.

Aquaria: Diseases: 


You're at the aquarium store, and have decided on some new fish for your freshwater tank. You ask the shopkeeper to catch you the new jewel you have in mind for your collection-- that one, no-- in the back, that one right there. And the shopkeeper obediently chases your pick in and out, around and through all the decorations and other identical fish in the tank-- never mind that two others already accidently swam into the net on their own. Thus begins only the first of many stressful events the fish you have chosen will endure today before it gets to your home aquarium-- to say nothing of a few more after it arrives there.

Now, having caught your prize, the shopkeeper plunks it into the container of dechlorinated water dipped from the 5-gallon bucket at the fish bagging station-- no sense having to refill tanks after dipping water from them all day, now, is there? And then it's sploosh! into the bag, and a blast of air from the "oxygen" tank, and then spin, spin, spin, and the sloshing around as the rubber band is wound around, around, around. Wait! Before you put it in the paper bag, let me hold it up to the light and look at it one last time before you ring it up.

Now it's time to go home. But, half way there:

It's such a hot day-- let's stop at Baskin Robbins for a cool treat. A banana split would be great-- but, hmmm... Don't want to risk messing up the upholstery, we'll have to eat it here-- should only be 20 minutes, or so.

OK, that was great, but time to get on home. Sure gets hot fast in this car on a day like today. If we ate ice cream in the car, it surely would have melted all over the place.

Finally home-- just float the fish in the tank while I change the oil in the wife's car. It shouldn't take me too long.

Wow, who'd have thought it would take an hour and a half to get that darned oil filter changed. Well, I guess that's been plenty of time-- go ahead and dump the new fish out into the tank.

Hmm, it's hiding in the back-- get that algae cleaner stick and chase it out front so we can see it. Go ahead and turn on all the lights, too, so we can get a real good look at it.

And the next day:

Darn, only a day later and the new fish is dead. Have to go to the aquarium store and get my money back. They must have sold me a sick fish...
...continue reading "Stress: Enemy Number One"

Aquaria: Marine: 

This article describes the basic components and techniques used to set up a new reef system.

First, it is always recommended to purchase the largest aquarium one can afford or has room for-- the larger the tank, the more stable the system will be. In any aquarium system, sudden changes are the enemy, whether it be temperature, salinity or pH. The larger the volume of water, the slower the impact will be to the system from any environmental changes.

Second is to figure out how much live sand is needed-- usually 1.5-2.0 pounds per gallon of water. A popular brand is Aragalive by CaribSea.

Next, and most importantly, live rock-- about .75-1 pound of CURED live rock for each gallon of water-- is needed. Consider when building and stacking your live rock that, at some point, you may introduce burrowing species that may dislodge the sand at the base of the rocks, potentially causing them to move or topple. To prevent this, you may wish to support the rock with a stable base. One way is to cut pieces of medium diameter PVC pipe the depth of the sand bed, and use them as support pylons. An additional benefit is that there will be better circulation around the base of the rocks as well.

Next is the protein skimmer. Again, it is recommended that one purchase the largest skimmer they can afford. The skimmer is the heart of the system. A tank with an undersized skimmer is like a Cadillac with a four-cylinder engine. Recommended, for 10 - 55 gallons, a SeaClone 150; for 75 - 225 gal, a Turbofloater 1000. Other brands are available that perform similarly.

Next is tank lighting. Compact fluorescents were favored in the past, but LEDs have surpassed them. The recommended amount is 4-6 watts per gallon (for soft and Large Polyp Stony corals). LEDs are good because they are long-lasting, affordable, and have more light output per watt than most other lamps.

Next on the shopping list are powerheads. Mini-powerheads are very good for the circulation needed to eliminate dead spots and increase skimmer effectiveness, while also being small enough to be unobtrusive. Figure on one for every 20 gallons of water.